Tuesday, July 23, 2013

Dolphins can use names to address each other

Dolphins are unique species of mammals, except human beings, who call each other by names. To such a conclusion came in the article of the scientific journal "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences" (http://www.pnas.org/) Scottish biologists Stephanie L. King (http://biology.st-andrews.ac.uk/contact/staffProfile.aspx?sunid=slk33) and Vincent M. Jenik (http://biology.st-andrews.ac.uk/contact/staffProfile.aspx?sunid=vj) from the University of St. Andrews.

Abstract


In animal communication research, vocal labeling refers to incidents in which an animal consistently uses a specific acoustic signal when presented with a specific object or class of objects. Labeling with learned signals is a foundation of human language but is notably rare in nonhuman communication systems. In natural animal systems, labeling often occurs with signals that are not influenced by learning, such as in alarm and food calling. There is a suggestion, however, that some species use learned signals to label conspecific individuals in their own communication system when mimicking individually distinctive calls. Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are a promising animal for exploration in this area because they are capable of vocal production learning and can learn to use arbitrary signals to report the presence or absence of objects. Bottlenose dolphins develop their own unique identity signal, the signature whistle. This whistle encodes individual identity independently of voice features. The copying of signature whistles may therefore allow animals to label or address one another. Here, we show that wild bottlenose dolphins respond to hearing a copy of their own signature whistle by calling back. Animals did not respond to whistles that were not their own signature. This study provides compelling evidence that a dolphin’s learned identity signal is used as a label when addressing conspecifics. Bottlenose dolphins therefore appear to be unique as nonhuman mammals to use learned signals as individually specific labels for different social companions in their own natural communication system.



in English:

http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=dolphins-may-have-individual-names-13-07-22
http://www.nbcnews.com/science/hey-flipper-how-dolphins-learn-each-others-names-6C10713827
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324144304578621990347719794.html
http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2013/07/dolphin-signature-whistles/

in Russian: http://www.inopressa.ru/article/23Jul2013/focus/delfine.html

in German: http://www.scienceticker.info/2013/07/22/delfine-reagieren-auf-ihren-namen/

in French: http://lci.tf1.fr/science/environnement/les-dauphins-sauvages-s-appellent-par-leur-nom-8173742.html 
http://www.radio-canada.ca/nouvelles/science/2013/07/22/003-dauphins-sifflement-unique.shtml