Wednesday, December 31, 2014

Problems of Onomastics 2014 №2 (17)

2014 №2 (17)

Abstract: The article presents an analysis of place names of the Vetluga-Vyatka interfluve area containing lexemes that can be of either Mari or Permic origin. The paper focuses on the roots shVrvazh ~ vozh which are frequent in the toponymy of the area, and some names ingluding the lexical component vad vod vot. The author establishes the linguistic attribution of the place names in question and suggests possible etymologies for the roots, determiners and names on the whole. In addition to the etymological analysis, the author shows the importance of some general and special principles of toponymic studies as applied to the differentiation of Mari and Permic place names of the Vetluga-Vyatka interfluve area. The author concludes that among the place names containing the component shVr there are those of both Mari and Permic origin, the latter being concentrated in the North-East of the Republic of Mari-El and in the adjacent districts of Kirov region. The author argues that the rootvozh was not active in Udmurt toponymy when Udmurt clan groups lived on the right bank of the Vyatka. The article also suggests new hypotheses concerning the origin of some place names containing vad vod vot which used to be explained referring to the Komi language.
Key words: Mari language, Permic languages, substrate, place names, toponyms, Vetluga-Vyatka interfluve area, Mari-El, Kirov region, etymology
Abstract: The article explores the potential of an integrative approach to ethnohistoric reconstruction. Using both onomastic and archaeological data, the author makes an attempt to reveal the correlations between the substrate toponymy of the Middle Oka Region and the areas of the archaeological cultures found on this territory. The results of the research show that the main types of non-Slavic place names of the region correlate with some important archaeological cultures: Fatyanovo-Balanovo culture, Shagar culture, Gorodets culture, cultures of Merya, Muroma, Meshchera and Mordva. Taking into account the most recent etymologies, the paper provides a toponymic stratigraphy of the territory in the remotest periods: Neolithic Era, Bronze Age and early Iron Age. The author argues that the formation of the basic hydronymic systems of the Middle Oka Region may be dated to the Bronze Age and reliably ascribed to the regional corded ware and battle axe cultures (Fatyanovo-Balanovo, Shagar) whilst the formation of the basic toponymic areas of the North-Eastern part of the region may be attributed to a later period (late 1st — early 2nd millennium AD). The article points out that the toponymic data are crucial for the ethnocultural attribution of the population of the settlements poorly studied by archaeologists. They acquire a particular importance when the interpretation of archaeological materials is disputable or insufficient.
Key words: Russian language, substrate toponymy, Middle Oka region, toponymic area, toponymic stratigraphy, archaeological culture area
Abstract: Founded in 438 and included on the World Heritage List in 2003, the ancient city of Derbent emerged in the area which, by the time of its foundation, was known under various names which belong, as it is shown in the paper, to different Bulgar (Turkic) languages: province of ChorΖουάρ-ος fortress, Chora Djora way,Τζοΰρ, city of ChoraChola Choga Chol, gate of Chola Choga, province of Sul. These dialectal place names meaning ʻsteep bank, precipiceʼ meet the localization of the city in a narrow passageway between the Greater Caucasus and the Caspian Sea. The author argues that all etymologies of the considered oikonyms and horonyms based on linguistic data other than Bulgar should be recognized as inadequate. Their Bulgar origin is supported by the toponymic landscape and the names of the peoples who lived within its borders in the early Middle Ages. The existence of toponymic parallels outside the region in question is explained by the migration, in the first centuries AD, of the Bulgars from the North-Eastern Caucasus and Dagestan to Eastern and Southern Europe — the Volga region, the Balkans and Crimea.
Key words: Derbent, Turkic Bulgar languages, toponymy, oikonyms, horonyms, toponymic landscape, ethnonymy, etymology
Abstract: The article deals with some problems of lexicographic treatment of place names. As a model of lexicographic description, the author chooses the ideographic principle which has been extensively used in appellative dictionaries but remains mostly unknown to onomastic lexicography. The author develops the concept of ideogram as applied to proper names, specifically place names. The author proposes to use the term “topoideogram” to denote the conceptual meaning of the appelletive base of a place name regardless of the nature of its derivational relations. In order to illustrate the appliation of these theoretical suggestions, the author models the structure of an ideographic dictionary of microtoponyms of the Western part of Vologda Region in Russia (Babayevsky, Vytegorsky, Belozersky and Vashkinsky districts) based on the materials of the Toponymic Expeditions of Ural Federal University. The principles of such lexicographic treatment are illustrated with reference to two ideographic types of place names: ‘Birds’ and ‘Musical Instruments’. The author argues that ideographic treatment of toponyms provides important onomasiological and ethnolinguistic information on the corpus of topoideograms of a specific region and their current use. The author also discusses the problem of the ideographic description of the so-called situational toponyms based on script patterns translated in motivational contexts.
Key words: Russian language, onomastics, toponymy, place names, microtoponymy, Vologda region, onomastic lexicography, ideogram, ideographic lexicography
Abstract: The article explores the specificity of metaphorical usage of the kotaikonymtashkentsy ‘Tashkenters’ by M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin in The Tashkenters Clique. Owing to Saltykov-Shchedrin, in the late 19th century press, literature and everyday communication the name of the inhabitants of Tashkent turned into a designation of the Russians who went to Tashkent with a civilizing mission. This name, being strongly negative, emerges in Saltykov’s work as an allusion to the odious project of the colonization of Turkestan by the Russian Empire. In the 20th century, after the Revolution, this katoikonym underwent another reevaluation and was included in an opposite semantic paradigm meaning salvational locus, symbolic rear in the East of the country. The author traces the way of semantic evolution of the word tashkentsy — from Saltykov’s denomination to the appearance of the antiphrastic meaning up to the disappearance of the name with its reconsidered meaning from the Russian linguistic space — with reference to the 19th century press and the works of F. Dostoyevsky, N. Leskov, N. Karazin, L. Tolstoy and A. Neverov.
Key words: Russian language, literary onomastics, katoikonym, dweller names, connotations of proper names, precedent proper name, Saltykov-Shchedrin, The Tashkenters Clique, Tashkent, Turkistan, Dostoyevsky, Karazin, Leskov, Ogarev
Abstract: With reference to the records of the Registry Offices of the city of Kazan, the author analyzes the semantics and the word-formational features of contemporary Tatar personal names, the peculiarities of their functioning and development. The article takes into account only the names of the children born to Tatar families. The statictical analysis reveals the most popular and the rarest names in the period in question. The author suggests a lexico-semantic typology of Tatar personal names, devides the names into classes according to their origin, pointing out the expansion of Arabo-Persian names in the contemporary Tatar anthroponymicon and the decrease of popularity of Turkic names, and analyzes the most frequent word-formational patterns used for the creation of new names. The author also reveals differences in functioning between men’s and women’s names (the female anthroponymicon contains a greater number of international names while the men’s names more often follow the traditional models of name formation, etc.). The author argues that, though contemporary Tatar personal names bear a mark of past historical and ethnocultural processes, the associative potential of a name may vary in the course of time.
Key words: Turkiс languages, Tatar language, anthroponymy, Tatar personal names, naming trends, etymology
Abstract: The article discusses the process of children’s understanding of the differences between proper and common names. The author emphasizes the role of the anthropocentric approach to personal names, especially when it is based on the study of the ontogenetic development of linguistic capacity focusing on the mechanisms of the formation of mental patterns of proper names, in particular — of personal names, and of their special linguistic status as (relatively) “strict” designators. Analyzing recordings of children’s spontaneous speech and experimental data, the author argues that the study of the early stages of personal names acquisition, in comparison with the acquisition of common nouns, highlights such significant features of a child’s developing mind as the ability to distinguish between identifying and generalizing linguistic signs, to construct hyponym/hyperonym relations going from individual to the most generalized designations (from personal name to common nouns of different kinds, including relative, completely depending on the reference point, and reciprocal ones, e. g. kinship terms). Additionally, the author shows that the anthropocentric approach emphasizes such properties of personal names as their coreferentiality, relativity and their capacity to act as semiotic shifters as far as the choice of the form of a name depends on the social relations between the speaker and his addressee and their respective positions in the social hierarchy.
Key words: Russian language, anthroponymy, anthropocentric linguistics, ontolinguistics, language ontogenesis, shifters, semantic relativity
Golomidova, M. V., Myasnikova, V. A.
Addressee’s Image in Names of Periodicals
Abstract: The article explores the ways of creating addressee’s images in contemporary hemeronyms — names of periodicals. The authors point out the semiotic specificity of hemeronyms used to identify collections of texts united, inter alia, by unified editorial policies and informational conceptions. The addressee factor is important for the pragmatics of naming periodicals and inventing hemeronyms, which are an integrated part of the media discourse. Based on Charles Sanders Peirce’s semiotics, the authors analyze the iconic, indexical and symbolic codes of marking the addressee in the vocabulary constituting contemporary Russian hemeronyms. The semiotic approach results in establishing different levels of the edition’s target audience portrayal and revealing the most frequent devices of its representation in derivative names. The general theoretical suggestions are than illustrated with an analysis of the names of Russian periodicals for women, this leads to precise the communicative and interpretative potential of iconic, indexical and symbolic codes, which differently participate in presenting the edition’s content or creating its unique image. The observations set forth in the paper may be applied for naming new magazines and newspapers.
Key words: Russian language, hemeronym, names of periodicals, addressee’s image, target audience, semiotic classification, motivational semantics, pragmatics
Abstract: The paper deals with the names of citizens (katoikonyms) with the meaning of children, which are widespread in the contemporary Russian language, including the media, fiction, poetry, forums and blogs. For this research the author artificially formed the names of citizens-children for 1101 Russian cities and towns by means of the diminutive suffix -(')onok (sing.) / -(')ata (pl.), which is specific for analogous Russian names. These names were then checked with Yandex search engine and, additionally, with Integrum media base. The search revealed names of citizens-children of 113 places (i. e. 10,5 %). In the aspect of word-formation, the names of children are determined by the conventional katoikonyms, which are characteristic of literary speech. In the texts written in the respective places, the names of children dwellers are formed in conformity with the locally adopted variants of katoikonyms, while in the texts of the external authors they can correlate with the locally unaccepted variants, e. g. for Tula: tuliachata ‘citizens-children’ < tuliaki ‘adult citizens’ — in the local texts vs. tul’chata tul’chane (unlikely variant in Tula regiolect) — in the external texts. At the same time, if variance of katoikonyms is characteristic for a regiolect, local authors can also form variants for names of children: e. g. for Tver: tverichata tveritiata‘children’ < tverichane tveritiane ‘adults’. These names are used for: 1) proper names (organizations, institutions, communities, celebrations, etc.), concerned with childhood; 2) occasional naming in texts of different genres and styles; 3) systematic usage in regiolects (e. g. in Central Siberia).
Key words: Russian language, names of citizens, katoikonyms, word-formation, Internet language, language of media, regiolects
Academic curriculum
Conferences, congresses, symposia
Key words: North Caucasian onomastics, toponymy, anthroponymy, ethnonymy, literature onomastics, A. V. Superanskaya, Adyghe State University, Maykop
Key words: “Onomastics of the Volga Region”, V. A. Nikonov, Tver State University
Book Reviews
Abstract: The reviewer gives a critical analysis of the book by N. V. Merkulova and S. V. Motashkova paying attention to logical, terminological and methodological shortcomings of the work. At the same time, acknowledging that some of the shortcomings revealed in the paper arise from general theoretical and methodological problems of literary onomastics, the reviewer outlines possible applications of the semantic model of onoma suggested by M. V. Golomidova and E. L. Berezovich to the analysis of proper names within literary texts.
Key words: French language, literary onomastics, frame analysis, pragmatics of literary text
Abstract: The review analyzes the recently published collection of exercises prepared by prof. E. S. Otin for his course on onomastics that he gives at the University of Donetsk. The extensive materials presented in the book are distributed into 191 exercises relevant to different areas of onomastics: the book invites students to discover the specificity of proper names from Russian Annals and the functional potential of contemporary proper names, to analyze the motivation of anthroponymic nicknames and to establish the reasons of the variability of foreign place names, to acquire the onomastic terminology, to propose their own names for commercial enterprises and to examine the ways of derivation from place names. Some shortcomings in formatting (lack of headings and references needed for the proper fulfillment of tasks, inaccuracies in formulation) do not detract from the book’s merits. The wealth of materials and the combination of scientific quality and student-oriented approach make it a valuable resource of educational information which already needs a second edition.
Key words: Russian language, onomastics, teaching onomastics at university
In memoriam
Petrikov A. V., Machulsky, E. N., Averyanov, K. A., Melnichuk, G. A.
Zoya Vasilyevna Rubtsova