Sunday, January 3, 2016

Nicknames: Slavic diminutives

https://dmnes.wordpress.com/2015/12/14/nicknames-slavic-diminutives/



What is fascinating about diminutive suffixes is how you can trace linguistic contact and language relationships through diminutive forms. The DMNES researchers saw that in their previous post, with the similarity between German and Dutch diminutives, and we will see it again when they look at the French diminutives -el and -in. In this post, they look at Slavic diminutives — suffixes used in Poland, the Ukraine, and the Czech Republic — which share a clear relationship with Low German -ke(n). The medieval onomasts concentrate on the two most common suffix types: -ko and -ek for men and -ka and -ek(a) for women.
As with the German suffixes, these show up in Latin contexts at least as early as the 13th C. [1,2] But unlike some of the German diminutive forms, which for the most part were rarer than the root names, Slavic diminutives often eclipsed the root name in popularity — for example, in the Czech Republic, diminutive forms of Judith far outstrip the full form.
In what is now modern-day Czech Republic, the suffix -ka was often spelled -ca(especially in Latin contexts where k was often avoided) or with an added sibilant, either before or after the \k\, resulting in -zca-zka-kza, etc. Examples of this include Anka (from Anne) and ElscaElzca, and Elzka (from Elizabeth). Often, this suffix was added not to the full form of the name, but to a hypocoristic from — as in the forms of Elizabeth just noted. In particular, native Slavic names were often truncated before the diminutive suffix was added, as we see in the namesSdynkaZdinczaZdinka (from Zdeslava) and BudkaBudcza (from Budislava). As a result, it can be often difficult to identify what the root name is, which is the case with many of the masculine examples we currently have. Given their linguistic and geographic context, masculine names such as BoczkoCzenko,DaszkoLuczkoParckoRaczkoSteczko, and Wyrsko are almost all certainly diminutives, though as of yet we haven’t yet confidently identified the root names.
Our data from Poland, at this point, is still relatively limited, but even amongst the handful of diminutive forms that we have, we can see the influence of the Slavic construction in forms such as Ludeko (from Louis), another example of which we find in Lübeck a few years later. What we tend to see more in our limited Polish data is similarity with German suffixes, in particular one which we didn’t discuss in our previous post: -el. When we discuss German masculine diminutive suffixes, we’ll return to this!
Finally, let’s look at Ukraine. As with Poland, our data from the Ukraine is still quite limited, and yet, even amongst that limited data we have a surprisingly large percentage of diminutive forms (making up nearly 7%!) [3]. We see both the-(z)ko and -ek suffixes in this data, as witnessed by Iaczko (from Jacob), Iwanko(from John), and Muszyk (root name not yet identified), on the masculine side, and Marsucha (from Mary) on the feminine side.
One must be leery of drawing any strong conclusions from the limited data that we’ve gathered so far. Nevertheless, even in this small data set we have ample illustration of the variety of ways in which diminutives could be formed, and evidence of their popularity.

NOTES

[1] Artsikhovskii, A. V., et al. Novgorodskie gramoty na bereste, Vols I-VII. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1953-78, no. 348.
[2] Moroshkin, Mikhail. Slavianskii imenoslov ili sobranie slavianskikh lichnykh imen. Saint Petersburg: n.p., 1867, p. 124.

[3] Compare that with, say, England or Spain, where diminutives make up 3%, or Sweden, where it is 4%.